The 5th Annual Emerald Conference

Feb 27, 2019, 10:30 AM
Mar 1, 2019, 5:00 PM
Loews Coronado Bay Resort

About The 5th Annual Emerald Conference

The most innovative scientific conference in the Cannabis Industry. Driving the Culture of Connectivity in the Cannabis Community!


Start to finish. We’ve created the perfect combination of information, collaboration, and investigation.

Experts. Professionals. Colleagues. We’ve brought together the most innovative and experienced people in the cannabis industry.
The Agenda

Exquisite sunsets. Tantalizing cuisine. An amazing conference experience that refreshes the mind and excites the senses.


Vanden Eynden
Analytical Chemist FORMULACTION
Susan Audino
Chemist/Chemometrician and Independent Consultant
Katherine Hyland
Global Technical Marketing Specialist Sciex
Todd Scattini
Global CEO Harvest 360
Kalev Freeman
PhytoScience Institute
Patricia Reggio
Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina, Greenboro
View More (20)
Jeff Tarrant
Director, NeuroMeditation Institute
Monica Vialpando
Linda Klumpers
Founder & Director, Tomori Pharmacology
Brad Douglass
Vice President of Intellectual Property & Regulatory Affairs The Werc Shop
Vanden Eynden
Analytical Chemist FORMULACTION
Chris Hudalla
Founder and Chief Scientific Officer ProVerde Laboratories
Director of Horticulture Science Illumitex
Eric Kawka
Founder at Cattis Scientific
Ariel Bohman
Application Scientist PerkinElmer
Shawn Helmueller
Chief Scientific Officer Deutsche Process
Swetha Kaul
Scientific Officer Cannalysis
Sean Orlowicz
Business Development Manager Phenomenex
Marian Twohig
Principal Scientist
Steve Baugh
Owner Chemistry Mapping
Toby Astill
Business Manager – Cannabis & Hemp Markets
Anthony Smith
Chief Science Officer EVIO Inc.
Robert Martin
CEO CW Analytical
Doug Distaso
Executive Director Veterans Cannabis Project
John Abrams
Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer Clinical Endocannabinoid System Consortium
Jessica Kristof
VP of Research and Development Phylos Bioscience


Wednesday, February 27

10:30 AM – 5:45 PM Emerald Classic Golf Tournament: Coronado Golf Course ● Registration

10:30 – Noon●

Lunch 11 – Noon●

Tournament 1 – 5:3

05:00 – 7:00 PM Emerald Conference Early Registration: Commodore Foyer

7:00 – 10:00 PM Confident Cannabis Welcome Party & Poolside Mixer: Marina Terrace You have the whole event ahead of you, you just got into town or participated in the Emerald Classic, and now’s not the time to jump right into conference mode. Come kick back, have some fun, and enjoy some drinks and appetizers with Confident Cannabis and Emerald Scientific! Located out by the beautiful poolside area of the hotel, you can relax with a beer, wine, or a Mai Tai (if you’re feeling adventurous), and enjoy talking with fellow attendees. We’ll have music, food, lights, and good vibes all around.

Thursday, February 28

7:00 AM – 5:00 PM Emerald Conference Registration

7:00 – 8:30 AM Breakfast: S0-Cal Wake-Up CallAntioxidant breakfast bar:Greek and plain yogurt, Sambazon acai, chia seeds, berries, seasonal fruit, walnuts, dried cranberries, agave nectar, granola, dried coconutAssorted muffins to include; blueberry, flax seed muffin, seasonal muffin, seasonal gluten-free, Quinoa and steel-cut oat porridge with brown sugar, toasted almonds, dried cherries

7:15 – 8:15 AM Emerald Test Advisory Panel Appreciation Breakfast – by invitationEmerald Test Advory Panel Members will meet and enjoy breakfast in a private ballroom.

8:30 – 8:45 AM Emerald Conference Welcome:Wes Burk, Emerald Scientific

8:45 -9:00 AM Emerald Classic Beneficiary:Doug Distato, Executive Director, Veterans Cannabis Project

9:00 AM – 5:00 PM Exhibit Hall Open

9:00 – 9:30 AM Keynote Speaker:Todd Scattini, Global CEO, Harvest 360

9:30 – 10:00 AM Scientific Director Opening RemarksJohn Abrams, Ph.D., Chairman & Chief Scientific Officer, Clinical Endocannabinoid System Consortium

10:00 – 10:30 AM Morning Break in the Pavilion

10:30 – 12:00 PM Session 1: Cannabis Genomics & ChemotypingSession Chair: Jessica Kristof, M.Sc., VP of Research & Development, PhylosSession Abstract: We propose to focus this session on identifying optimal classification and characterization strategies for Cannabis. This session will, therefore, present advances in Genomic and Chemotypic analyses. How can we extend Cannabis classification beyond Sativa / Indica (Narrow Leaf / Broad Leaf) designations to connect with actual user experiences? We will discuss the applicability of Genomic characterization of Cannabis and highlight ongoing work in this area. Additionally, we intend to include evidence for epigenetic factors affecting the Cannabis plant in this discussion. What can we learn from other plant species that can be applied to Cannabis? We will also present current information regarding terpenoid and flavonoid content of Cannabis.

10:30 – 11:00 AM Genetic Sleuthing – the power of sequencing for the entire cannabis marketPresenter: Jessica Kristof, M.Sc., VP of Research & Development, PhylosOver the past decade, chemical analysis for cannabinoid and terpene content has become a widely adopted test. As the final dataset, chemotype results represent the culmination of a long plant development history ending with senescence. This history and the results thereof are both empowered and weakened by phenotypes that are directly and indirectly genetically triggered. Every phenotype is the result of an active metabolome and proteome, which is the direct translation of the transcriptome, that was specifically selected for from the genome. At every level of “-ome” scientists build upon the previous knowledge set thus developing a suite of predictive tools along the way. Developing these tools to aid breeders, growers, and consumers at each level are the primary goal of Phylos Bioscience. Within the last five years, Phylos has built the world’s largest cannabis genetics repository, developed new predictive methods to empower breeders, ended a decade-long debate about synthase copy count, and identified a virus thought to have plagued the industry for just as long. To date, all of our work has been to understand how, why, and when a grower should anticipate seeing the chemical results they rely on.

11:00 – 11:30 AM Chemovar Cannabis Typing Using Principle Component Analysis on High Resolution Mass Spectral DataPresenter: Katherine Hyland, Ph.D., Global Technical Marketing Specialist, SciexConsumers of Cannabis have long asserted the differences between cultivars, or strains, for user experience. The historical classification scheme of Indica, Sativa, and Hybrid has prevailed as a popular and simplified way to group together Cannabis cultivars of perceived properties and ancestral origin, allowing the consumer to select desired products based on a class-based assumption of its qualities. However, modern approaches to analytical testing of Cannabis, spurred largely by a rapidly- expanding legal market and new regulations on the industry, have shown for some time now that these historical classifications no longer explain the differences between or properties of the hundreds of commercially available Cannabis strains1. More relevant description and explanation of strain-specific chemical profiles is an increasingly discussed topic, with significant implications for patient treatment, intellectual property development, metabolomic profiling, and economically- motivated adulteration. The concept of chemovars- a chemistry- based, phenotypical fingerprint rather than a horticultural cultivar- has been proposed and gained popularity in the scientific community. A highly novel, nontargeted, high resolution mass spectrometric approach is described for the exploration of chemovar profiling for several Cannabis strains. Advanced software and data processing workflows are utilized to statistically evaluate how the chemotypic signature of Cannabis samples differ from each other. This nontargeted approach does not try to target a “short-list” of cannabinoids or terpenes and is therefore more able to identify novel biochemical markers which may explain the differences between sample groups.

11:30 – 12:00 PM Grammar & Symbols to Translate the Language of Cannabis ChemotypesPresenter: John Abrams, Ph.D., Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer, Clinical Endocannabinoid System Consortium (CESC) Inc.Cannabis Chemotyping involves categorizing and communicating patterns in sets of natural product content. Goals include enabling association with user experiences or clinical outcomes, defining properties of the product class (eg cured flower), and replacing strain names. We have derived a series of empirical rules that describe cannabinoid and terpenoid biosynthesis patterns (the Grammar) and symbolized this (as icons) to facilitate communication of natural product content. The icon shape reflects cannabinoid content ranges based on the 3 major ratio-types: High THC, High CBD, and roughly equivalent THC: CBD. The icon color is based on multivariate analysis and validation of terpene content mapped onto HSL color space. The empirical observation that Cannabis has a universal signature in a (Principal Component) Score Plot based on Terpene content supports this approach. The assignment of the main color axis was influenced by terpene content analysis of “Floral” & “Fuel” aroma category assignments. These can be well described by the First Principal Component (PC1) in PCA Loading Plots. A full spectrum of color Is used to fill the icons, reflecting terpenoid content on the “Fuel” pole or the “Floral” pole. Furthermore, subsets of Terpenes cluster based on correlated relative content. This is likely due to properties of terpene synthases, including subcellular localization and promiscuity. Our approach takes into account the tight control of terpinolene cluster monoterpenes as well as limonene cluster monoterpenes. The utility of this patent-pending symbolic approach describing Cannabis chemotypes is illustrated using 2016 Humboldt County Cultivation Test Plot terpene data.

12:00 -1:30 PM Lunch by Chef Chris Aguirre

12:15 – 1:15 PM Optional Session: New Strategies in Pesticide Residue Analysis on Cannabis Products, Sponsored by Agilent CannaSafePlease join us for a lunch seminar where CannaSafe will be presenting on “New Strategies in Pesticides Residue Analysis on Cannabis Products”. This will be followed by an ask the experts panel, so please bring your questions for our specialists! Ask the Experts Panelists are: Tina Chambers- Sample Preparation Technical Specialist Anthony Macherone- Sr. Scientist & Strategic Program Manager Jessica Westland- Sample Preparation Applications Scientist Craig Jones- ICPMS Application Scientist Dan Konet- Genomics Account Manager Rama Tummala-Mass Spectrometry Product Specialist Neil Jayswal- Molecular Spectroscopy Product Specialist Cambria/Britannia Ballroom*Must Pre-Register to Attend* 

12:15 – 1:15 PM Standards & Practices RoundtableAn interactive/audience participation luncheon for Regulators, Standards developers & Licensing Officials for the Cannabis & Hemp Industries. Registrations are limited by invitation or approval. Please contact [email protected] for registration.

1:30 – 3:00 PM Session 2: Pre-Clinical/Clinical Cannabis Research: Concepts, Controversies & Emerging EvidenceSession Chair: Kalev Freeman, M.D., Ph.D., Consultant, Phyto-Science InstituteSession Abstract: This session will cover pre-clinical studies, clinical surveys, or trials of medical cannabis. Pre-clinical studies in animal models can provide insights into mechanisms of action or indications for medical cannabis. Novel approaches to clinical cannabis research, such as The Dosing Project, can provide important information to help guide clinicians and their patients in the use of cannabis. Randomized-controlled trials of pharmaceutical formulations containing plant-based cannabidiol (CBD) supported the recent FDA approval of the first of these products and yielded published evidence for safety and efficacy. Public health surveys have also provided evidence for decreased opioid use with medical cannabis. Speakers will discuss concepts, controversies and emerging evidence from pre-clinical / clinical cannabis research.

1:30 – 2:00 PM Where Do Phytocannabinoids Act?Patricia Reggio, Ph.D., Marie Foscue Rourk Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina, GreenboroHashish and marihuana, both derived from the Indian hemp Cannabis sativa L., have been used for centuries for their medicinal, as well as, their psychotropic effects. Phytocannabinoids are oxygen containing C21 aromatic hydrocarbons found in Cannabis sativa L. Over 120 phytocannabinoids have been isolated to date from Cannabis, including two compounds, (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and (-)-trans-Δ8-THC (Δ8-THC) that act at cannabinoid receptors and elicit the characteristic psychotropic effect associated with Cannabis. Phytocannabinoids, including Δ9-THC and Δ8-THC, can also produce beneficial effects, such as appetite stimulation, analgesia, anti-glaucoma and anti-emetic effects. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids, such as (-)-cannabidiol (CBD) are currently emerging as key constituents of Cannabis as well. CBD, is of great interest because of its neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety and anti-tumor effects. For many years, it was assumed that the beneficial effects of the cannabinoids were mediated by two Class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. However, today we know that the picture is much more complex, with the same phytocannabinoid acting at multiple targets that can include select other GPCRs including the orphan GPCRs: GPR55, GPR18, GPR3 and GPR6; the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) including PPAR and PPAR; and, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, including TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1. My presentation will focus on the phytocannabinoids, including Δ9-THC and CBD, from the prospective of targets at which these important compounds act and how these targets contribute to phytocannabinoid medicinal effects.

2:00 – 2:30 PM A Comparison of Two Cannabis Strains Using EEG and Psychological Measures: Implications for Therapeutic ApplicationsPresenter: Jeff Tarrant, Ph.D., Director, NeuroMeditation Institute While cannabis is now widely used for a variety of medicinal and recreational purposes, little is understood about the impact that different cannabis profiles may have. What measurable impact is there on acute changes in brain functioning? Is it possible to identify which cannabis compounds are most likely to result in specific therapeutic effects?Terpenes are one of the primary families of chemical components that appear to impact the effects of cannabis. Research has shown that one of the best ways to characterize strains is by their terpene profile rather than THC levels or their identification as “Indica” or “Sativa.” Some strains are relatively high in specific terpenes such as alpha-terpineol, fenchol, limonene, camphene, terpinolene, and linalool, whereas others are characterized mainly by trans-ocimene, guaiol, beta-eudesmol, myrcene, and alpha-pinene. In this pilot we studied one strain from each of the above terpene profiles, one with terpinolene (Golden Pineapple) and the other with beta-myrcene (Edelweiss) as its dominant terpene. Volunteers in our study smoked each variety in two different sessions while we collected data on changes in EEG brainwaves patterns, mood, and altered states of consciousness. The EEG data was analyzed using a Bayesian multilevel model which was designed to be skeptical of the effects of each strain within each bandwidth (including theta waves, alpha waves, and beta waves). This model can isolate the effects of each strain to specific regions of the brain and compare effects between bandwidths in different regions.Preliminary analyses indicate that Edelweiss (Edel) decreased overall EEG power more than Golden Pineapple (GP). When the strains were compared on specific EEG bands, Edel showed decreased Beta while GP showed increased theta. When the two strains were compared on measures of mood and altered states, there were clear patterns favoring each strain suggesting that GP may be better for cognitive engagement including planning, theory of mind and, insight. Edel may be better for sedative effects and/or entering an altered states. These results will be discussed in relation to future directions and implications for therapeutic applications.

2:30 – 3:00 PM The American Cannabis Experiment: Extracting Data from the Largest Unregulated Clinical TrialPresenter: Kalev Freeman, M.D., Ph.D., Consultant, Phyto-Science InstituteWhile medical marijuana is now legal in most states, few medical schools provide training in cannabis-based medicine. Furthermore, restrictive federal policies and regulations severely limit clinical research on the health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids, limiting the evidence available to physicians. Researchers have increasingly utilized surveys and public health data to understand the impact of the US marijuana experiment, which may be considered the largest unregulated clinical trial in the history of medicine. Recent surveys of patient-reported cannabis use patterns and symptom relief provide emerging evidence for cannabis dosing, therapeutic benefits, and opioid replacement. We will discuss strategies for overcoming barriers to cannabis research, progress in medical cannabis education for health care professionals, and how scientists in the industry can help.

3:00 – 3:30 PM Afternoon Break 

3:00 – 5:00 PM Session 3: Formulating the Future of Cannabis ProductsSession Chair: Monica Vialpando, Ph.D., Founder, Vialpando, LLCSession Abstract: The increased legalization of cannabis worldwide has driven a corresponding growth in research and development. The industry has progressed from first-generation products (flower) to second-generation products (edibles), to the latest generation of offerings. Concurrently, the industry has moved beyond ∆9-THC and CBD to other cannabinoids, such as THCA, CBN, etc. Also, the value of minor components like terpenoids is increasingly recognized. Formulation technologies, which serve as the bridge between the active components and the finished product, play an increasingly important role in cannabinoid product development. Proper formulation strategies lead to products with increased efficacy, better dose control, decreased variability, and increased patient acceptance and compliance. This session will highlight key research findings and the latest formulation strategies and product development insights from scientific leaders.

3:30 – 4:00 PM Pharmacological Formulation Strategies for Effective Cannabis-based ProductsPresenter: Linda Klumpers, Ph.D., Founder & Director, Tomori Pharmacology, Inc.Hundreds of new cannabis products are launched every year. Despite many of them being aimed at the medical market, few products are created with extensive knowledge of their pharmacology. This includes both how the the active ingredients move through the body, called pharmacokinetics (PK), and what effects the active ingredients have on the body, called pharmacodynamics (PD). Even fewer products undergo any clinical testing to verify their medicinal effects. The major routes of cannabinoid administration include oral, sublingual, pulmonary, transdermal, and topical. Each of these has unique challenges for formulation and dosing. New technologies such as nanoemulsion formulations are being used to enhance absorption, but without characterizing the impact on pharmacokinetics (e.g. bioavailability and metabolism), it is difficult to advise patients on appropriate dosing of the product. Terpenes are an even more difficult case. Despite some encouraging findings in animal models of disease, their efficacy in humans (either as a single agent or in combination with cannabinoids) is largely unknown. This has not stopped the cannabis industry from manufacturing and promoting a wide variety of terpene products, often implying medicinal effects. Further research on terpene PK/PD will help optimize doses, routes of administration, and formulations, maximizing the chances of successful studies. This presentation will discuss what we know about cannabinoid and terpene PK/PD, what our biggest gaps in knowledge are, and where we should focus future research efforts to maximize effectiveness of new cannabis formulations.

4:00– 4:30 PM Standardizing the Entourage Effect: Regulating Terpenes & Flavor Additives for Inhalable Cannabis Products without Throwing the Baby Out with the BathwaterPresenter: Brad Douglass, Ph.D., Vice President of Intellectual Property and Regulatory Affairs, The Werc ShopCannabis products cover a wide range of forms that will demand a regulatory scheme that is anchored in existing frameworks for food, dietary supplements, pharmaceuticals, liquor, and tobacco regulation.In this presentation, the importance of establishing ingredient standards for inhalable cannabis products will be addressed. The focus will be on the use of terpenes and other flavor additives in those products, such as cannabis concentrates, vape pens, and metered-dose inhalers. This sub-topic of terpenes and flavor additives resides at the nexus between analytical tools, post-processing options, and regulatory policy.While some similar information and policy direction exists for inhalable tobacco and nicotine products, this presentation will highlight the challenges in applying that model for cannabis formulations. The outline of an inhalable ingredient standards framework steeped in mandatory and voluntary regulatory and safety systems developed for food, tobacco, and consumer products will then be presented. On this foundation, we can overcome the regulatory and safety challenges that exist today for inhalable cannabis products while retaining the physiological ensemble effects that are at the core of the therapeutic potential of cannabis.

4:30 – 5:00 PM High-Resolution, Comprehensive, and Quantitative Physical Stability Analysis of Cannabis Beverage Emulsions: Homogeneity, Formulation, and Shelf LifePresenter: Matt Vanden Eynden, Ph.D., Analytical Chemist, Formulaction, Inc.Cannabis beverage emulsions, just like all other food and beverage products, undergo some sort of stability testing in order to maintain a level of quality that will be passed along to customer. The shelf integrity of these products are also critical over time as oils can break out from their emulsion matrix and produce what is now a heterogeneous product, and therefore unappealing to an end user. Additionally, since these cannabis products contain substances that are to be treated like pharmaceutical drugs, the risk of potency variances throughout the areas of a storage container via particle migration can surface. This lack of homogeneity can cause different regions of the product to contain a higher percentage of the drug than another. The regulation of this is critical and current testing in the HPLC field is not uniform across the board and the validity of the results can be subject for debate. The destabilizations of these formulations are rooted in the ability of particles to migrate and change size at various vertical positions inside of a storage container. Such particle characteristics can be quantified by utilizing Multiple Light Scattering, where the scattering intensity of an incident light source into a concentrated sample can provide information on the particle size and concentration at a given position within the sample. When this light source is appended to a mobile reading head containing multiple light detectors at different incident angles around the sample container the kinetics of sedimentation, clarification, and flocculation can be easily and clearly observed. In addition, this light scattering data can be used to provide information into local concentration profiles, redispersion analysis of previously destabilized samples, and overall dispersion quality of the media. Such information can be used for formulation optimization, modification of existing products, and predicting the shelf life of these formulations. Specifically, data will be shown of various cannabis beverage emulsions over a 9-month period as to prove the stability and potency consistency of the products as they age on a shelf. Optimally, this method can be used throughout the industry to have a standard, high-resolution testing method for such emulsions.

5:00 – 7:00 PM Perkin-Elmer Networking Reception5:30 – 7:00 PM Poster Session 

Friday, March 1
8:00 AM – 1:30 PM Emerald Conference Registration:

7:45 – 8:45 AM Optional Session: Genomics of Cannabis Terpene Content Variation, Sponsored by Merida Capital. Presenter, Keith Allen Ph.D., Director of Bioinformatics, Steep HillTerpenes give cannabis many of its distinctive odors and flavors, and so variation in terpene content is a key factor differentiating strains and will be an important target for breeders. Looking forward to a new wave of craft and medicinal breeding, it is clear that a full understanding of the genetic basis of terpene variation will be an essential starting point. We have used newly available Cannabis genome sequence to identify the full set of Terpene Synthase genes, responsible for producing the large range of terpenes found in this plant. I will discuss this work and the implications for an emerging Cannabis marketplace where customers are looking for strains with precisely dialed in effects. *Must pre-register to attend

8:00 – 9:00 AM Breakfast: Classic ContinentalSeasonal sliced fruits and berries.Assorted bagels, muffins, and fruit danishes.Served with assorted jams, sweet butter, and cream cheese.

9:00 AM – 3:00 PM Exhibit Hall Open

9:00 – 9:30 AM Keynote Speaker:Robert Martin, Ph.D.. CEO, CW Analytical

9:30 AM – 12:00 PM Session 4: Cannabis Cultivation, Extraction and Processing: Optimization and InnovationSession Chair: Chris Hudalla, Ph.D., Founder & Chief Scientific Officer, ProVerde LaboratoriesSession Abstract: As the cannabis industry matures, there has been a significant shift from flower-based products to derivative products. Vape pens, tinctures, capsules, and patches are commonly found on the consumer market. Creation of the derivative products relies heavily on extraction technology, much of which has historically focused on the use of ethanol, small hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide to extract the cannabinoids from the plant material. As the industry grows and becomes more competitive, the optimization of these processes is vital to maximizing yields, while minimizing costs and waste. In addition, innovation is driving new approaches to extraction or post-extraction processes, which are often utilized to clean up the raw extracts or transform them into consumer products. The competitive nature of the industry, coupled with consumer demand, is also fueling the development of novel formulations and/or dosing formats. This session will aim to highlight industry activities aimed at optimization of both Upstream Cultivation as well as Downstream processes driving innovation.

9:30 – 10:00 AM Ultraviolet Supplement for Higher Yield, Better Quality and Less Chemical SprayPresenter: Yan Ren-Butcher, Ph.D., Director of Horticulture Science, IllumitexThis session will review published scientific reports of the effects of UVA and UVB radiations on plant growth and development, quality improvement and disease controls. The possibility of introducing UV spectra to increase THC and other cannabinoids, as well as is becoming widely talked about amongst cannabis growers. From our research collaborations with growers, we found that UVA light increased yield and reduced Powdery Mildew infection by 100%. Beyond cannabis, the effect of UV radiation has been studied on several other crops including red-leaf lettuce, tomatoes, basil, wheat, and rice. The observations have shown both positive and negative results regarding crop quality and yield. This presentation will also provide some suggestion on how to apply UV light to your plants.

10:00 – 10:30 AM Optimization Study of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Cannabinoids from Cannabis SativaPresenter: Eric Kawka, M.A., Founder, Cattis ScientificSupercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been studied and optimized for a variety of purposes in the food and nutraceutical industries. However, optimization data related to the use of SFE for extracting cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa is limited. This talk will focus on how cannabinoid extraction can be optimized by altering the static soak and dynamic flow durations of CO2 while maintaining a consistent solvent-mass to feed-mass ratio. Mass balance and extraction efficiency data will be presented and discussed.

10:30 – 11:00 AM Morning Break & Bloody Mary BarSponsored by SCIEX

11:00 – 11:30 AM Optimization of the Decarboxylation Reaction in Cannabis ExtractPresenter: Ariel Bohman, Ph.D., Application Scientist, PerkinElmerThe production of cannabis extracts and oils for both medicinal and recreational products has increased significantly due to greater market demand brought on by legalization and patient demand for a greater diversity of cannabis products. Most cannabis extraction processes undergo a decarboxylation step whereby the carboxylic acid functional group is removed from the cannabinoids converting the naturally occurring acid forms to their more potent neutral forms. The literature reveals a large spectrum of reaction conditions, including a range in reaction temperatures, time, and instrument setup. As such, there is a lack of universal agreement surrounding the optimal reaction conditions for the decarboxylation process in cannabis extract. This reaction is further complicated by its sensitivity to water; with studies showing that competing isomerization, oxidation, and decomposition reactions can occur at elevated temperatures. The lack of chemical information during this critical processing step leads to a highly subjective determination of reaction completeness. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) allows for real-time, non-destructive decarboxylation reaction monitoring. Spectra of cannabis extract were collected at regular intervals throughout the decarboxylation process with aliquots being sent for HPLC analysis. Chemometric models for the quantitative determination of cannabinoids throughout the decarboxylation reaction process will be presented and discussed highlighting the utility of FT-IR-ATR for real-time reaction monitoring and optimization of reaction conditions.

11:30 – 12:00 PM Identification of unknown cannabinoid reaction pathways using Ultra-Performance Convergence Chromatography (UPC2) for real-time, high-resolution reaction monitoringPresenter: Shawn Helmueller, Chief Scientific Officer, Deutsche ProcessThe medical cannabis industry has seen fantastic growth in both research and industrial scale processing and formulation of new and unique cannabis-based products. As such, new technologies and process optimization strategies are required across each and every stage of the cannabis product development life-cycle. As researchers learn more about cannabis therapies, efforts have been made to tailor cannabis extracts for a specific composition in hopes to target a particular therapeutic effect. As a result simple, fast, and efficient strategies for enriching, purifying, and characterizing lesser-known minor cannabinoids are highly-desired at the research, proof-of-principle, and pilot scale. A natural products medicinal chemistry approach is used to study a recently reported reaction for enriching cannabinol (CBN) in cannabis extracts, by reacting with molecular iodine (I2); the reaction is reproduced at lab scale and further characterized using high resolution Ultra-Performance Convergence Chromatography (UPC2). Real-time, high resolution reaction monitoring shows multiple previously unreported reaction pathways for the conversion of p-methane type phytocannabinoids to CBN. This talk will give a brief overview of real-time process monitoring using UPC2 (SFC) technology. Previous work on the iodine induced aromatization reaction of phytocannabinoids is reviewed, and new intermediate pathways for the conversion are proposed. Multiple reaction intermediates are isolated using preparative SFC, including a previously unreported cannabinoid; the major unknown reaction intermediate is further characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR

12:00 -1:30 PM Lunch by Chef Chris Aguirre

12:15 – 1:15 PM Optional Session:Title: Defensible and Reproducible Analysis of Pesticides in Cannabis Sponsored by Waters CorporationPresented by Marco Troiani & Savino Sguera of Digamma ConsultingPesticide analysis methods are well established in existing industries such as agriculture, but many cannabis analysis labs are struggling to complete method development around the testing of pesticides to ultra-trace quantities in cannabis reliably and are finding reproducible and defensible data more difficult to acquire than their experience in food and agriculture seemed to indicate. Digamma looks at the challenges and difficulties of testing cannabis products for ultra-trace quantities of pesticides using a wide variety of data collected through years of method development on a wide variety of analytical instrumentation. *Must Pre-Register to Attend*

1:30 PM – 4:30 PM Session 5: Current State of Cannabis Testing: Lessons Learned & Future OpportunitiesSession Chair: Swetha Kaul, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer, Cannalysis LabsSession Abstract: Cannabis testing at the state level has progressed significantly in the last few years as an increasing number of states move towards a regulated cannabis market with specific testing requirements for compliance. Certain techniques and methodologies have begun to emerge as more effective than others and a significant amount of information has been gathered about matrix effects and the impact of various clean-up strategies. All these research and development efforts are essential to the progress towards standard methodologies in cannabis testing. However, there are several hurdles that remain such as the differences in testing requirements between states, complexities of standardization due to the variety of methodologies utilized, critical evaluation of data quality and fledgling proficiency testing programs. The purpose of this session is to explore some of the recent advances as well as to investigate the remaining challenges facing testing laboratories in a regulated market

01:30 – 2:00 PM Chromatography and the Art of Method MaintenancePresenter: Sean Orlowicz, Business Development Manager- Cannabis, PhenomenexSome say that chromatography is as much of an art as it is a science. While this may be true, what if instead, we think of it as a tool? A specialized tool used to build machines capable of answering questions like, “how safe is this product for consumers?”. The availability of such tools often defines the capabilities of a laboratory. Furthermore, possessing them is only the first step. Understanding their capabilities and gaining the skills necessary to use them properly is far more important and leads to higher quality results.In this chromatographically focused presentation, we aim to educate and advocate for a better understanding of how chromatography can be utilized and to improve robustness, throughput and overall quality of the cannabis testing laboratory. Using case studies for common test panels, we will use LC tools like gradient profiles and selectivity to optimize retention and resolution of cannabinoids, investigate HPLC column and instrument characteristics to build robust and scalable potency assays, while exploring common “fixes” for breakdowns. We will examine LC and GC techniques for challenging pesticides like Chlorfenapyr, Quintozene, Endosulfan and Etridiazol, which often define workflows. Throughout, we will introduce troubleshooting techniques. In summary, attendees will gain new tool

2:00 – 2:30 PM Routine Analysis of Cannabis for Pesticides and Mycotoxins using UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MSPresenter: Marian Twohig, Ph.D., Principal Scientist, Waters CorporationQuantitative methods for residual pesticides and mycotoxins analysis in cannabis should provide reliable coverage and robust methodology for the entire list of analytes to fulfill the state-mandated safety tests. The detection sensitivity and specificity offered by LC/MS/MS is advantageous for determining trace levels of most pesticides and mycotoxins in complex matrices. However, not all pesticides ionise efficiently by conventional ionisation techniques such as electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. In such cases, trace level detection of pesticides in the presence of a highly complex matrix can be challenging and variable leading to inconsistencies in the results. The combination of GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS utilises the advantages of both techniques and can provide quantitative and confirmatory analysis of challenging compounds that can be analysed by either approach. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of pesticide analysis in cannabis flower matrix was performed using both analytical techniques. Sample extraction procedures were optimised and a simple dispersive SPE method was used for clean up of the initial acetonitrile extract. Relevant recovery and matrix effects data will be presented. Methods met regulatory requirements for cannabis pesticide residues and mycotoxins testing in the State of California. Overall method performance, was evaluated by assessing recovery, matrix suppression, linearity, and sensitivity.

2:30 – 3:00 PM Afternoon Break

3:00 – 3:30 PM A Three-Tiered Approach To Managing Measurement Uncertainty In The Cannabis LaboratoryPresenter: Steve Baugh, Owner, Chemistry Mapping, Inc.The cannabis analytical laboratory faces many challenges, both technical and regulatory. Technically samples range from the raw agricultural product to extracts, concentrates, finished products and even high purity ingredients held to purity standards once reserved for analytical reference materials. From a regulatory standpoint, the standard of practice varies by agency, changes annually, and lacks harmonization from state to state. To help reconcile the technical challenges and increasing regulatory requirements a three-tiered instrument calibration and system suitability program is presented to address multiple regulatory programs simultaneously. By dividing the technical challenges into 4 groups- raw plants, extracts, concentrates and complex finished products like edibles- we can begin to address the data quality objectives for each group, including the sampling and analytical uncertainties of each. By incorporating AOAC and USP best practices and system suitability requirements, with a few extra standard injections, the proposed system suitability program can provide complete data packages to support purity by calibration curve, single point calibration and even chromatographic purity results from the same run. A high-level but thorough discussion of calibration strategies, quality control samples, and internal standards will address many of the frustrations within the laboratory and data user communities in mathematical terms.

3:30 – 4:00 PM Overcoming the Challenges Associated with Pesticide Analysis of Cannabis and Understanding the Matrix Effects and the Impact of Various Clean-Up StrategiesPresenter: Toby Astill, Ph.D., Sr. Business Manager – Cannabis & Hemp Markets, PerkinElmerA new analytical LC-MS/MS method has been developed and qualified to allow cannabis laboratories to complete the entire Pesticide assay (including molecules such as Chlordane and pentachloronitrobenzene) in one quick method, using one instrument. Data will be presented to show the long-term stability of the method, simplicity of sample preparation and techniques to overcome matrix effects, robustness towards any contamination from the dirty matrices, and detection limits well below the State requirements (LOQ<=10 ppb). References will show that having a validated method and SOP for the cannabis testing industry is key in ensuring the highest quality of cannabis reaches the patient. In addition, the influences of the various cannabis sample types tested will be discussed, and details specified on how to handle flower, concentrates, and edibles.

4:00– 4:30 PM The value of metals testing for risk management and product safetyPresenter: Anthony Smith, Ph.D., Chief Science Officer, EVIO LabsA number of US States have adopted requirements for heavy metals testing of Cannabis and Cannabis products. There have been lots of murmured presumptions that metals testing will increase costs without doing much to improve harm reduction, the motivation of all public health and safety regulators. We have found that metals testing is driving product safety and supply chain efficiency in the Cannabis industry. Research suggests that Cannabis is rather efficient at accumulation of some metals from soils. Further, there are a number of published studies describing its phytoremediation potential for metal contaminated soil. But it is unclear yet, if much, or any stabilized heavy metal complexes are transported from roots to aerial parts. Working with several different producers, we have helped a client find a source of Lead contamination in their horticultural supply materials. Another client’s manufacturing process was causing Arsenic accumulation in their Cannabis concentrate. In both cases, working together in partnership with their laboratory allowed theses producers to discover and mitigate these problems well before products ever got to market.

4:30 – 5:00 PM Thank You & Closing RemarksKen Snoke, President, Emerald Scientific